Historical Background

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“The Republic of South Sudan” The world's newest nation, her independence follows six decades of two civil wars with the north in which some four million people died.

The people of South Sudan, who are now citizens of the Republic of South Sudan, the world’s newest nation born on July 9th, 2011, have fought two destructive civil wars against the Arab-Muslim dominated successive governments in then the Republic of the Sudan since 1955. The first civil war started in 1955 a few months before Sudan gained its political independence from Britain on January 1, 1956 and ended with the Addis Ababa Agreement in March 1972. That agreement granted the people of South Sudana brief period of regional semi-autonomy rule.

In 1983, however, the Addis Ababa Agreement, which granted South Sudan the regional autonomy, was abrogated and the South Sudan region was divided into three fragmented Administrative Areas. Moreover, in September 1983, Islamic Sharia Laws were decreed and imposed as the basis of governance and laws in theSudan. This paved the way for the second civil war, which started later that same year and ended in 2005 with signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the Government of Sudan (GOS) and the Sudan People Liberation Movement and the Sudan People Liberation Army (SPLM/SPLA). This agreement paved the way for the self-determination referendum on January 9, 2011 in which the people of South Sudan voted overwhelmingly for the partition of Sudanand the creation of an independent Republic of South Sudan.

The two wars fought in South Sudan have resulted in loss of four million lives, incalculable suffering and total destruction of little educational and health infrastructures the British Colonial. Administration and the Catholic Missionaries had built at the turn of twentieth century. The Balanda Community Associations in the United States and Canada were formed in recognition of the fact that individuals and communities have crucial roles to play in their own development; and that the responsibility of providing essential services such as health and education should not be left alone to the government to do. It is within this context that the Balanda Community Associations have decided to focus on the education as the key indispensable ingredient in establishing the basis of community and nation-building.

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